The gospel of John, chapter four, details distinct occurrences of Jesus’ movement through Samaria. Accordingly, due to the chronological arrangement of events in the discussion leads to a simplified outline regarding the chapter. The reader of the text of the section is introduced to Jesus going back to Galilee; however, going back to Galilee is preceded by departing from Judea (4:1-3). The discussion in the chapter transits to Jesus encounter with the woman at Jacob’s well (4:4-42).
Moreover, the third phase of the discussion in the text is Jesus’ arrival in Galilee (4:43-45) with the last section detailing the Jesus’ second arrival and sign at Cana (4:46-54). Consequently, the current discussion is purposefully for providing historical/cultural as well as the contextual analysis of the chapter. In this manner, to effectively carry out the analysis of interest, the paper proceeds by detailing the authorship and also when and where the chapter was written. Secondly, the discussion of the paper focuses on providing critical historical events that influenced the writer concerning the occurrences recorded in the text. Thirdly, there is a discussion on any cultural nuances that are discovered to have also influenced the writer.
Arguably, it is indisputable that the different books of the Bible have different authors and with the differences in the authorship comes the differences in the styles used to communicate the will of God as revealed to the author. The gospels are established to detail the life of Jesus and have different authors that are exemplified by the differences in the details provided for the various accounts in Jesus’ ministry. In this context, the three most import principles in the compositions of the Gospels are an adaptation, arrangement, and selectivity. The teachings and the narratives that are selected by the evangelists are suited for their purposes on the discussion provided.
Chapter four of the gospel of John is of focus in the discussion, thereby determining the authorship of the gospel of John is imperative. Arguably, the author of the gospel of John is believed to have been John, the son of Zebedee, who is also stated to be one of the closest apostles to Jesus. Additionally, it is recorded that John wrote the in 60-95 AD at the time he was living in Ephesus. Again, it is provided that he lived in Ephesus before his exile in Patmos. Revealing the promises, humanity, as well as the divinity of Jesus was John’s primary aim in writing the gospel of John. However, in his quest to achieve the primary goal of the engagement, he was also interested in strengthening the church, and this is seen in refuting the heretic teachings. Chapter four of the gospel of John is written at the time John the Baptist has been arrested. Although it is not detailed in the section, scholars provide that Jesus’ decision to return to Galilee through Samaria was a means of evading a confrontation with the Pharisees. The Pharisees had become hostile to the ministry of Jesus.
In the context of the genre, the gospel of John is said to be different from the other three canonical gospels. The aspect of sharing features concerning the narrative structure and even material makes the three canonical gospels to be referred to as synoptic gospels. In this manner, when compared to other genres in the Greco-Roman literature, the four canonical gospels are seen as on genre based on their shared strong links concerning their features. Although the gospel of John is a narrative as similar to the other gospels, it is provided that it contains a defective description. For instance, when compared to the book of Luke that has similarities with the Acts of Apostle – known as narrative non-fiction genre, the gospel of John is seen to have somewhat a defective narrative (termed as aporias) that calls for a self-assignment of a literary genre. The Gospel of John is written from an eyewitness perspective, and it also contains inconsistencies in logical sequence or grammar, artificial transitions and even abrupt changes in the flow of the narrative. The phraseology that is evident in Greek documentary from antiquity is evident in the work of the gospel of John, and the phraseology is used to stress the interdependence between the actual historical events reported and the facts described.
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