stages in development of a newborn

Table of Contents

Part 1. 3

Personality. 3

Oral stage. 3

Anal stage. 3

Phallic stage. 3

Latency stage. 4

Genital stage. 4

Part 2. 4

Personality Disorders. 4

Affective symptoms. 5

Impulsive symptoms. 5

Interpersonal symptoms. 5

Cognitive symptoms. 5

How Behaviors Associated With BPD Differ From Similar Behaviors Considered Normal In American Culture  6

Ways in Which BPD Is Treated. 6

Conclusion. 7

References. 9





Part 1


Personality may be identified as an intermingling of an individual’s temperamental, behavioural, mental, and emotional characteristics. According to Freud’s theory, there are five developmental stages. He posited that few individuals successfully complete the five stages. These five stages are Oral stage; birth to approximately 15 months, anal stage; 15 months to roughly 3 years; Phallic stage, 3 years to roughly 5 years; Latency stage, approximately five years unto puberty; Genital stage, from puberty onwards (Frank, 2009).

Oral Stage

A newborn child is principally governed simply by its drives. Consequently, the infant searches for instantaneous gratification. The infant has the id which is the principal element in human personality.

Anal Stage

The gratification focal point at this stage shifts to the anus from the mouth. The child draws contentment from the removal of faeces. This results in a conflict between the infant and its parents. Solving this conflict necessitates ego development, and by itself has imperative implications for behaviour in later stages in life.

Phallic Stage

The gratification focal point at this stage shifts to the genitals, even though this pleasure is not identical to the one experienced in adulthood. The major conflict experienced in this stage is referred to as the Oedipal/Electra conflict. In resolving this conflict, the child demonstrates attachment to the same sex parent as well as superego development.

Latency Stage

The drives of gratification in the preceding stages seem moderately inactive. This is partially as a result of the subjugation of sexual drives that is consummated in the oedipal stage. Freud alleges that the subdued drives would be channeled to other activities, like hobbies, or formation of acquaintances.

Genital Stage

In puberty there is recurrence of the previous drives. Drive energy’s focal point is the genitals again, with a fully developed sexuality expression. Thus, it leads to formation of loving relationships or taking on the responsibilities of adulthood. If the individual is preoccupied with excessive libidinal energy in the initial three stages, the person cannot attain maturity, or shift the focal point from their bodies, their parents or their pressing needs to broader responsibilities that would involve other people (Frank, 2009).

Part 2

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders refer to mental sicknesses that share some unique characteristics.  They comprise long-term symptoms that play a fundamental role in the majority, if not all, facets of the individual’s life. While several disorders fluctuate in relation to the presence as well as intensity of symptoms, personality disorders characteristically remain comparatively constant. This part of the paper will focus on the Borderline personality disorder (BPD) (Winograd, 2008).

BPD affects approximately 1% of the general populace. Environmental and Genetic factors have demonstrated as being involved in its development. BPD causes the majority of its problems in early years of adulthood, a time in which the majority of individuals in western societies are full of life laying the groundwork for their future life. Approximately 8% of BPD patients perish by means of suicide. BPD bears considerable pressure on mental health-care facilities as well as societal costs. The foundation of treatment in BPD is psychotherapy, though psychiatric medication could also be indicated. In recent times, it has been demonstrated that BPD turns less symptomatic ion the course of time. A follow-up survey by Paris (2005) discovered that by forty years of age 75% of the persons suffering from BPD recuperate nearly regular functioning, while by fifty years of age 90% they grow healthier (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). BPD is signified by the symptoms below:

Affective Symptoms

  1. Improper, intense anger or trouble controlling irritation, for instance, recurrent display of temper, regular anger, and recurring physical fights.
  2. Affective volatility as a result of a manifest reactivity of mood, for instance, extreme episodic dysphoria, anxiety or irritability generally lasting for a few hours and seldom more than a couple of days.
  3. Severe thoughts of worthlessness.

Impulsive Symptoms

  1. Impulsivity in no less than two areas that are possibly self-damaging, for instance, substance abuse, expenditure, sex, reckless driving, and spree eating.
  2. Intermittent suicidal demeanor, threats or gesticulation, or self-mutilating demeanor.
  3. A pattern of unsteady and extreme interpersonal relationships typified by alternating amid extremes of devaluation and idealization.

Interpersonal Symptoms

  1. Identity disturbance, persistently and markedly unbalanced self-image.
  2. Hysterical efforts to evade real or imaginary abandonment.

Cognitive Symptoms

  1. Transitory, stress-linked awkward ideation or chronic dissociative symptoms.

How Behaviors Associated With Bpd Differ From Similar Behaviors Considered Normal in American Culture

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) causes individuals to have patterns of developing unsteady relationships with other people. Persons affected with BPD may depict some problems in the way they perceive themselves, and are usually extremely impulsive. Several psychology researchers think that persons who develop BPD may have experienced childhood trauma, generally neglect or abuse. Other scholars think BPD is as a result of excessive sensitivity in the component of the brain that controls emotions. BPD may cause individuals to experience paranoid thoughts as well as extreme, unmanageable mood swings. Occasionally persons with BPD demonstrate patterns of extreme, stormy, and unsteady relationships with other people, as well as difficulty upholding intimate, close relationships (Winograd, 2008).


BPD causes frequent exhibitions of inapt anger. Persons the disorder often seems to cling on to others, and perceive their relationships rather differently from what would be regarded as normal. For instance, an individual with BPD may stumble upon a stranger and immediately decide that the stranger is actually their closest friend. Persons with BPD tend to consider others with intense emotions, but may quickly experience feelings of intense dislike or hate.  It is common occurrence in these people to indict their families of abandoning them (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).

Some characteristics of Borderline Personality Disorder comprise of intense fear of being rejected or abandoned by others. Persons with BPD are particularly responsive to their surroundings, and are frequently fearful of any change, particularly changes in procedures or plans.

Ways in Which BPD is Treated

There several options for treatment accessible for persons suffering from BPD. Medication is one of the treatment options. Psychopharmacology is utilized in treating patients with BPD, whereby contemporary advances in medicine have introduced new medications that ease the symptoms of BPD. Mood stabilizers such as antidepressants are among the available medications that help persons suffering from BPD. The mood stabilizers help in alleviating a number of the frantic, distressed feelings frequently linked to BPD. Psychopharmacology is normally utilized in conjunction with psychotherapy in order to realize more successful treatment programs (Gunderson, 2008).

There are therapeutic interventions that help in focusing on the ability to tolerate anguish, changing indistinct beliefs, and initiating new crisis solving skills for relationship and social problems. These therapeutic interventions include electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), whereby a patient is injected with an electric current of 70 to 150 volts through the head, so as to ease chronic depression. However, ECT has demonstrated major setbacks such as, seizures, loss of consciousness, confusion, disorientation, as well as memory loss (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).

Allowing the BPD patient to talk with reference to current difficulties as well as past experiences in the attendance of an accepting, empathetic, and accommodating therapist have verified to be successful when managing persons suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder.

Careers or people working with Borderline Personality Disorder patients must set appropriate and firm limits, and also be understanding and empathetic of the turmoil the individuals with this disorder experience. The objectives of treatment for persons with BPD ought to include improved self-awareness with larger impulse control and improved stability in relationships. BPD may be complex to understand, particularly for family, and caregivers. BPD is usually emotionally and physically draining for patients, as well as for the care givers (Hunt, 2009).


When handling an individual with BPD, it is imperative to understand that BPD is an illness, but not anyone’s liability. One of the most central things that should be offered to persons suffering from BPD is support. Support may be provided to the persons suffering from BPD by accommodating several limitations, such as instructors for those who may have learning disabilities. An exceptionally basic supportive procedure is validation, or affirming the authenticity of perceptions or the rationalization of feelings of the people suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. It is extremely vital to understand that while the tendency towards impulsivity, extreme emotions, and intensity in interactions is habitually enduring, individuals who employ therapeutic intervention habitually demonstrate improvement in the initial year.


American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publication.

Frank, G. (2009). Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21(4), 91-97.

Gunderson, J. (2008).  Borderline personality disorder: A clinical guide Arlington, VA:     American Psychiatric Publishing.

Hunt, J. (2009).  Borderline Personality Disorder across Lifetimes. Journal of Women &

Aging, 20(1), 153-161.

Winograd, G. (2008).  Adolescent BPD symptoms: diagnosis for functioning over two decades.   Journal of Psychiatry & Child Psychology, 42(9), 920-931.



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