Part 2- Citations in Chicago. 2
Part 1- Summary
Reading a book takes more than just opening it and beginning to read. This is according to professor Sill whose idea of reading a book is extremely different from what many students would think.
To him, reading a book begins by first familiarizing oneself with the publisher of the book, which then helps one decipher whether the book is of importance in regards to adding to their knowledge or not. To the professor, this will save a lot of one’s time, as it will be a way of the readers todistinguish between the books they want to read and those they do not want to read even without opening them. Another step in reading a book is finding and knowing the book’s copyright date, which should particularly show whether the book is up to date or not. It is another way of eliminating unnecessary books in case the reader wants something from a particular period. After this, the professor points out that one is ready to familiarize himself or herself with the author of the volume. It is evident from the article that those pieces of work without clear authors and their credentials are to be treated with immense suspicion. Looking at the title of the book is also essential, just as well as looking at its table of contents. As if these steps were not enough, the author advises that the reader should go ahead and look at the front matter and index of the book to ensure that the book has the correct content organized appropriately. The rest are not essential according to the professor, as by following these steps one has already read the book.
Part 2- Citations in Chicago
The self- instructed student must possess a number of skills. One of this expertiseis concerned with learning a book. According to professor Sill, merely opening a book and reading it does not constitute reading abook. Instead, he claims that for one to be considered skilled in reading a book, he or she must be able to follow several of steps. The first step is to check the publisher of the book, which is essential as it helps the reader know whether the book is appropriate for increasing their knowledge or not. The other step is looking at the copyright date, which tells one whether the book is from the right time or not, next is to look at the author’s name, and then the title. Not all these are essential unless the reader familiarizes themselves with the title of contents, index, and other front matters. According to the author, the rest is not important.
Another skill of a self- instructed student has to do with studying and remembering. One of the most critical points to understand is that learning can never be seen just as a passive assimilation process. This is to mean that individuals learn by doing. Groups, therefore, are not usually appropriate for learning, as they do not encourage individual learning, which is closely related with learning. In this case, whole learning is considered better than part learning.
Another skill a self- instructed student must have has to do with thinking. Hutchings, of University of Chicago, argued that the purpose of education or the reason why students go to college is so that they can learn how to think for himself or herself. According to this scholar, to learn how to think for oneself should not frighten any adult intelligence it would a child.
The fourteenth amendment was essential in the construction of the current American constitution as it offered the first constitutional definition of what is meant by the American citizenship.
Because the general and theoretical justification of revolution deals in general with truths that are self- evident, it is one of the most commonly remembered and quoted.
Part 3- Self-Instruction
There are a number of things one can understand from the phrase self-instruction. Self- instruction, for instance, refers to a number of skills that students must possess for them to comprehend and remember. The article implies that self- instruction must include a number of skills, possessed by the student. One of these skills is the skill to read a book. According to professor Sill, reading a book entails more than one step. It does not entail the only step many learners seem to be familiar with, the one of merely opening a book and reading. The professor implies that one must be able to distinguish which book is suitable for their knowledge needs and which is not. The learner can do this by looking at a number of things, which include the publisher of the book, the date of publishing or the copyright date, the author’s name, the name of the book, table of contents of the book, the index of the book and the frontal matter of the book which includes such things as the preface, acknowledgement and other matters. By looking at these, a learner is able to decipher what the book entails and whether it is helpful for the learner in gaining the appropriate knowledge.
Self- instruction also requires the learner to possess another skill in regards to being able to study and then remember what has been studied. According to the instructor in this lecture, it is essential to understand that learning is not a mere passive assimilation process. Individuals have to do so as to learn, because students learn through acts or practice. Therefore, a student has to make some effort to study alone or practice what he or she has learned without help. Studies cited in this article indicate that students do not learn well and remember what they have learned if they do so in a group. This is because groups do not encourage students to participate as individuals. Since learning is an individual activity, it then becomes extremely difficult for those students who learn in groups to learn anything or remember what they have learned. On the same point, whole learning is shown as more essential when compared to part learning for self- instructed students. The student is instructed to read the chosen book once, straight through so as to gain some knowledge of the arguments the book presents. Difficulties and problems the students encounter during this time should be noted but not solved during this time. It is only after the student finishes reading the book when he is allowed to revisit the problems. In this case, understanding is seen as a matter that only needs the learner to understand relations. The mind is able to move to precision from vague.
It is grave at this stage for the self- instructed the student to understand that the purpose of education is not to fill their minds with unnecessary knowledge, but is to learn to think for oneself, to discuss, learn to read and understand. To be able to achieve the goals of learning, students need to know and understand old and ancient disciplines like rhetoric, grammar, mathematics and logic.
Brinkley, Alan. ‘The Background of the Constitution.’In The Unfinished Nation. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1997.
Davidson, James W. & Lytle, Mark H. ‘Inside the Information Revolution.’In After the Fact. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1992.
Kerekes, Tibor. ‘The National Educational Alliance at Work.’ The Popular Educator IX, no. 49 (1939): iv.
Loud, Lingard. ‘From the General Editor’s Desk Chats about the Educator in the Making.’ The Popular Educator IX, no. 49 (1939): i- ii.
Weinland, James D. ‘How to Study and Remember.’ The Popular Educator IX, no. 49 (1939): 4476.
 Lingard Loud, ‘From the General Editor’s Desk Chats about the Educator in the Making’, The Popular Educator IX, no. 49 (1939): i- ii.
 James D. Weinland, ‘How to Study and Remember’, The Popular Educator IX, no. 49 (1939): 4476.
 Tibor Kerekes, ‘The National Educational Alliance at Work’, The Popular Educator IX, no. 49 (1939): iv.
 Alan Brinkley, ‘The Background of the Constitution,’ In The Unfinished Nation, (New York: McGraw- Hill, 1997), 427.
 James W. Davidson & Mark H. Lytle, ‘‘Inside the Information Revolution,’ In After the Fact, (New York: McGraw- Hill, 1992), 58.
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