public assembly and free speech tension


  1. The existing tension between public assembly and free speech. Also, how in the 19th century, there was a need for expanding
  • The need for public assembly and free speech needed to be addressed, in order to solve the impending problems in the city of New York. During the 19th century, there were many cases concerning freedom of speech.
  • In the year 1919, there was a case in the Supreme Court, concerning issues on free speech. The first case was the Schenck v. U.S. Charles T. The espionage act was violated by Schenck and this is the reason for the existence of the case. His conviction was upheld by the Supreme Court and the decision was unanimous (Keller, 2010. 68). At that time, punishment was awarded to anyone who violated the law through speech.
  • Police played a role in trying to suppress people and this in turn lead to Uprisings in the city of New York.
  • Chaotic riots and vandalism were rampant the city of New York. People were trying to find ways in order to make their lives decent.
  • John Mill advocated for people to express themselves in public. This would be of benefit to everyone in society.
  • In order for any society to be free, freedom of expression must exist. Peace needs to be achieved through talks, consultations and implementing of laws.
  1. New York City and its influence from Dutch legacy in the 19th century
  • The Dutch settled in Fort Orange in the year 1624. The island of Manhattan was purchased by Peter Minuit, and this is how the Dutch colony was formed and is now the city of New York.
  • Later on, it was taken over, in the year 1664, by people from England (Keller, 2010. 67).
  • There have been many great impacts, which have been brought about by the Dutch to the city of New York. This has been experienced in the political, social and economic sectors, and some are still evident up to today.
  • Frontier living in New York City was mixed with that of the Dutch, thus a new culture was formed.
  • Churches, schools, traders and farmers are some of the impacts of settlement.
  • Religion was another impact of the Dutch settlement whereby they brought Christianity to the city of New York.
  • The rates of infant mortality were high and this challenged the lives people led. In order to obtain reassurance and hope, people turned to the church .The latter ensured that aspects such as relief, schooling and needs of a spiritual nature were catered for.
  • Dutch language was spoken widely all over New York and it was known as ‘low Dutch’. Some examples of words, which are in use today and are adapted from Dutch language, include yacht, dumb and cookie.
  • Slavery was also introduced in the city of New York by the Dutch (Jacobs, 1992. 34). The latter used slaves in their business such as companies and industries as they were an effective form of labor. This is in the form of cost and convenience.
  • The Dutch greatly contributed towards the improvement of the economy of the city of New York. They established many businesses that thrived in terms of earning large profits. The money earned was used to improve the city of New York.
  1. ‘Geography is destiny’
  • I do agree that geography is indeed destiny. When people discover new land, there is a lot of fame, which is attached to it.
  • The Dutch were extremely enterprising people who wanted to outdo Spain in their different conquests. This is the reason for engaging in constant exploration.
  • The coast line of New York City was easily accessible by the Dutch. It was easy for ships to enter the shores of the United States.
  • Climate and weather made it possible for the Dutch to take control over the city of New York.
  • The destiny of the city of New York is being witnessed today as it has been described as a great city.
  • Socially, it benefited through the introduction of a new culture, which is still embraced positively.
  • People were motivated to fight for their political freedom. There was a need to obtain freedom of speech, in order to advocate for their privileges and rights.
  • The economy of the city of New York improved as a result of trade practices facilitated by the geography of the area as well as it being located strategically.
  1. Impact of ‘Geography is destiny’ at the New York City during the 19th century
  • History should be known as it affects what is taking place currently. The society is influenced by action that took place in the past.
  • Race was a problem that thrived as the 19th century came to an end. The Dutch were foreigners in America yet they were never discriminated based on their race. The irony is that white and black American discriminate based on race yet they have lived together for long (Shorto, 2005. 34).
  • Many ethnicities existed in the city of New York mostly those such as Hispanics, blacks, and whites. Separate neighborhoods existed for these different populations but today this has changed.
  • The Dutch were immigrants to the United States and they were accepted and welcomed. As the 19th century came to an end, immigration is an issue which is controversial in America.
  • Immigrants arriving in America are often subjected to inhumane conditions, and others even lose their lives. The irony is that the Dutch upon arriving in America were not subjected to such atrocities.
  • Factors such as ethnicity, race and immigrations should not exist in the 21st Society should ensure that life is conducted in the manner which the Dutch did.
  • Multicultural diversity exists currently in the city of New York. Society


Work cited

Keller, Lisa. The triumph of order: democracy and public space and democracy in New York and London. New York: Columbia University Press.2010.Print.

Shorto, Russell. The Island at the center of the world: the epic story of Dutch Manhattan and the forgotten colony that shaped America. New York: Double Day.2005.Print.

Jacobs, Jane. Death and life of great American cities. New York: Vintage. 1992. Print.



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