Pico Question: Psychotherapy Among Patients

Does Psychotherapy Among Patients Help To Reduce Mental Health Conditions As Compared To Other Methods?

Psychotherapy is a form of therapy that helps individuals with high levels of emotional difficulties and mental illness.  Psychotherapy helps to minimize the troubling signs that a person may be experiencing so that he or she may function better and also increase healing and personal wellbeing.  Some of the major problems that are solved by psychotherapy include the impacts of trauma,  challenges coping with the daily life,  death of a loved one and various mental disorders.  For psychotherapy to function properly, it may be used together with other forms of medication or therapies The aim of this study is to assess whether conducting psychotherapy among patients helps to reduce mental health conditions.

Psychotherapy is considered to be one of the most effective methods of solving or handling the mental health conditions across the globe as compared to other methods. For example, psychotherapy tends to be more effective than medication in treating the depression cases particularly when long term follow-up and consumer satisfaction factors are considered (Weisz, Ugueto, Cheron, & Herren, 2013).  It is also considered to be effective across all age groups, ranging from children to old adults and across all settings ranging that range from independent practices to community centers. According to research, it is estimated that the effects of psychotherapy are greater as compared to the effects triggered by other forms of medical treatment( Halfon, Larson, & Slusser, 2013). Psychotherapy tends to be effective to approximately 80% of the population, however, approximately five to ten percent of the mental health patients usually experience adverse effects after using this type of therapy (Freeman, Reeve, Robinson, Ehlers, Clark, Spanlang, & Slater, 2017).

There are various types of psychotherapy which are used to treat the mental health conditions, however, It is considered that some individuals respond to a certain type of therapy as compared to the other. The different types of psychotherapy include, first, the cognitive behavior therapy, this type of therapy enable people to identify and change the behavior and thinking patterns that are usually harmful through replacing them with the factional behaviors.  This type of therapy enables people to focus on their current challenges and identify the effective ways of solving them (Dobson & Dozois, 2019). Secondly, interpersonal therapy., this is a short term method of treatment that enables the patients to acknowledge the underlying personal issues that tend to be troublesome, for example, the unresolved grief. Thirdly, dialectical behavior therapy, this is a unique type of cognitive behavior therapy that plays the role of regulating emotions. This type of therapy is mainly used to treat individuals with severe suicidal thoughts and individuals with posttraumatic disorders (Weisz et al., 2013).  Fifth, psychodynamic therapy, this type of therapy indicates that personal mental well-being and behavior are usually influenced by childhood experiences and inappropriate repetitive thoughts.

Does psychotherapy among patients help to reduce mental health conditions?

This PICO question on psychotherapy contains all the PICO elements that include; the problem, the intervention method, the comparisons involved and the expected outcome.  In this case, the problem being experienced is a mental health condition. The intervention method that is to be implemented is psychotherapy, the comparisons involved in this PICO question include, using psychotherapy and using other methods to treat mental health conditions such as medication.  The expected outcome of the PICO question is to reduce the mental health conditions experienced by the patients in society.  This PICO question can be considered to be a  diagnosis question because psychotherapy is mainly used to treat or reduce the mental health conditions being experienced by the population such as depression, mental disorders, and anxiety (Cuijpers et al., 2013). Psychotherapy is considered to be one of the methods used in treating mental health conditions.  Therefore the PICO question tries to confirm whether psychotherapy is more effective as compared to other methods such as medication treatment.

What databases and electronic resources did you search?

To access more information that can effectively solve the PICO question, I  used various database and electronic resources which include; first, PsycINFO. This database was crucial in my research since it composed of mental health and behavior components which are important in conducting the study. The mental health and behavior components in this database help to identify the various methods used to treat the mental health issues and also identify the most effective method of treating the conditions (Wampold & Imel, 2015). Secondly, PubMed. This database was also effective in my research since it contains crucial information on the life sciences and the biomedical topics, which provide very crucial information basic information on mental health topic.  To identify the existing mental health conditions, one has to be familiar with the general life sciences that provide the basic information concern with these conditions. Thirdly, CINAHL. This database also formed a significant part of my research since it provides numerous journal articles on nursing and alienated health. The articles provided help to provide clear information concerning how effective the psychotherapy is in eliminating the mental health conditions(Freeman et al., 2017). This database provides various journals and articles that provide crucial information that is needed to solve the PICO question.

When narrowing your topic of interest to a PICO clinical question, what terms did you use to search the evidence?

When narrowing my topic of interest on mental health conditions to form specific  PICO question I used various key terms that were easy to map in the database vocabulary. The main terms that I used include psychotherapy and mental health conditions. These two terms were used to search the crucial information from the database that was used to solve the  PICO question.  The terms also played an important role in the research since they help identify or select only the important information that is required to solve the  PICO question(Freeman et al., 2017). Various filters and limits such as year of publication had to be used together with the selected terms to ensure that only the appropriate information was identified.  Some of

Were there any filters or limits you used to include or exclude sets of results?

When searching for the most appropriate literature that is required to support the evidence-based practice, it is important to apply various filtering or limit strategies. Applying limits helps to narrow down the information within the database to ensure that we come up with the most effective results for the PICO question.  In this study, I used various limits or filters that were applied in the database search results to ensure that the information provides high-level evidence for the PICO question.  The limits and filters are used in various situations such as when identifying the most recent information concerning the research topic.  In this case, one has to restrict the available research article based on the year of publication (Storch et al., 2013). The limits are also used when trying to identify a specific type of research such as journals or newspaper article. This type of limits is used when differentiating between primary and secondary research. Some of the limits applied when searching crucial information concerning the mental health topic include; first,  the publication date,  this limit was applied in areas where there were too many results and also when retrieving the recent literature. Secondly, limiting by publication type, this type of limit helps to ensure that the research that is retrieved is based on a highly rigorous methodology and also reflects a high-level methodology.  Thirdly, this limit helps to ensure that the evidence gathered effectively addresses the PICO question by providing concrete details that are in line with the topic.


Resource Term used Limits or filters The number of results.
textbook, monograph, review article psychotherapy Publication date

Publication type

Article databases, both popular and scholarly Mental health Publication date

Publication type

biography, dairy, and

review article

Mental health condition Publication date

Publication type

Peer reviewed article

textbook, monograph, review article health Publication date

Publication type



How did you determine if the references you located were primary or secondary research articles?

The primary sources are considered to be the first-hand account on a specific topic while the secondary sources usually account for anything that is not a primary source such as the newspaper articles,  and the published research. In this case, I was able to identify or determine if the references are either primary or secondary article by reviewing the information presented in the abstract.  In primary reference, only the first-hand information or the original information is presented in the summary while for the secondary sources, the information presented in the abstract or summary is usually obtained from published research.


Cuijpers, P., Sijbrandij, M., Koole, S. L., Andersson, G., Beekman, A. T., & Reynolds III, C. F. (2013). The efficacy of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in treating depressive and anxiety disorders: A meta‐analysis of direct comparisons. World Psychiatry, 12(2), 137-148.

Dobson, K. S., & Dozois, D. J. (Eds.). (2019). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Publications.

Freeman, D., Reeve, S., Robinson, A., Ehlers, A., Clark, D., Spanlang, B., & Slater, M. (2017). Virtual reality in the assessment, understanding, and treatment of mental health disorders. Psychological medicine, 47(14), 2393-2400.

Halfon, N., Larson, K., & Slusser, W. (2013). Associations between obesity and comorbid mental health, developmental, and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample of US children aged 10 to 17. Academic Pediatrics, 13(1), 6-13.

Storch, E. A., Arnold, E. B., Lewin, A. B., Nadeau, J. M., Jones, A. M., De Nadai, A. S., … & Murphy, T. K. (2013). The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(2), 132-142.

Wampold, B. E., & Imel, Z. E. (2015). The great psychotherapy debate: The evidence for what makes psychotherapy work. Routledge.

Weisz, J. R., Ugueto, A. M., Cheron, D. M., & Herren, J. (2013). Evidence-based youth psychotherapy in the mental health ecosystem. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(2), 274-286.







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