Microwave chemistry is superior to conventional methods of heating for conducting chemical interactions and reactions, and soon enough it will emerge as the most preferred technology for performing chemical reactions and synthesis(Gedye, et al., 1986). Microwave chemistry is defined as the science or technique of applying irradiation of microwave energy to chemical reactions, microwaves, in such cases, perform as electric fields of high frequency and, as a result, generate heat that heats any material that possesses electric charges like polar molecules dissolved in a solvent or conducting solids found in solids. Solvents that are polar are heated as the molecules contained in them are forced to rotate with the electric field and lose energy as they collide(Kidwai, 2001).
This study will be based on the field of microwave chemistry. The previous project put much of its focus on examining the permittivity and attenuation characteristics of different kinds of liquids and fluids under the application of energy produced by microwaves over the centimetric frequency range of not more than 10 GHz. This range of frequency covers a considerable range of applications of the microwave. The applicator that has been proposed to be used in the study is a coaxial cavity of a single- mode so as to avoid any signals of multiple modes generated within the cavity, therefore, increasing the result’s accuracy(Kidwai, 2001).
This study will make use of the findings of this previous study to inform the current paper, which will be focused on management research and the development of a new tool of management, like a computer software, that researchers can use to manage the technological and scientific activities during the phase of research and during the final testing, design and commercialization stages. The reason why I feel like this is a compelling area of research is first because there is a considerable gap in the availability of information on the same in the current studies, and second because I have created a project tool of management project- tracking sheet during one of my occupational experiences that researchers can use in updating and tracking their progress of all current projects in a single sheet.
Traditionally, management of projects has been shoved in the back by numerous business schools and has become the preserve for those faculties that are more specialized professionally like architecture and engineering. Project management is the art and science of organizing a project’s components, whether the project involves the development and production of new products, launching of a marketing campaign or new service. As it follows, a project is not something that is part of normal operations in the business. It is typically developed once, it is specific and temporary. A project makes use of resources in the form of people, materials, cash and time and has limits in funding. Regardless of the kind of project, management of the project usually follows one particular pattern. The first stage is usually a definition, the second is usually planning, the third execution, the fourth control, and the final stage is usually closure(Russell, 2011).
There are different trends in project management currently in use. One of these is called project management portfolio. This is an essential way of monitoring, evaluating and monitoring a scientific or technological project such as in microwave chemistry. This management technique usually is a move by firms to get control over a number of projects by evaluating and analyzing how well each project or part of the project aligns with the strategic aims and goals of the firm and quantifying the value of the project(Badiru, 2009).
A firm in most cases will be working on a number of projects, or on a project that has numerous stages and activities, each leading to potentially different amounts of value or returns. The agency or organization may decide to do away with those projects or parts of projects with minimal returns so as to dedicate more resources and energy to the rest of the project or projects to preserve the projects depicted to have a higher value or returns(Knecht, 1974).
Another common method of managing projects is through the development and use of management software. Project management software covers numerous types of software including planning and estimation, cost control, scheduling and management of budgets, communication, collaboration software, documentation and quality management, and administrative systems, which are utilized in many cases to deal with difficulties usually faced in large projects(Project Management Institute, 2003).
In microwave chemistry, like in the previous research, project management software can be designed to aid both the teams and project managers to develop consistent project plans, analyze workload, allocate resources, track work progress, manage budgets and estimate costs of the plans. There are several reasons why project management using the software is appropriate. Software, for instance, easily manages the projects of a firm and shares resources among them according to their demands(Peter& Morris, 1994). They help bring the critical issues of the project to the attention of the project manager. They are useful in tracking the evolution of the project in terms of time, completion and costs. The software also provides one with a clear and clean way to break down a project, allocate resources, build schedules and manage budgets. In addition to this, computer software provides systematic project guide that guides a manager from beginning to end of the process of project management so that they can organize the project plan without wasting time(Uyttewaal, 2001).
There are numerous examples of project management software that managers can use. However, one of the most crucial tools in project management in today’s technological world and one that can fit in with projects in microwave chemistry is a Gantt chart. This tool was developed by Henry Gantt for showing the progression of projects in the form of a chart. For more complex projects like the one in microwave chemistry, the simple traditional tool would have to be enhanced further by using a work breakdown structure that would be used to identify the activities before constructing the tool(Clark& Gantt, 1922).
Coming up with a Gantt chart is not complex. The first step usually involves the listing all of the activities in the plan. For each task, the manager should show the estimated length of time, start date and whether the tasks are sequential or parallel. The second step would involve setting up the Gantt chart by heading up the graphs with the weeks or days through to the completion of the task. The third step is plotting of the tasks onto the established graph. The fourth step involves the analysis of the presented information. Gantt charts are essential management tools for scheduling and planning of projects, they allow managers to assess and determine the completion time of the project, the needed resources, and layout of the order in which the activities and tasks need to be carried out(Clark& Gantt, 1922).
Though this tool is extremely useful in the management of projects, they can be exceedingly unwieldy for those projects that have more than 30 tasks. Large Gantt charts are usually not appropriate for most displays on computers. Although software for managing projects can show dependencies of schedules as lines between tasks, displaying a larger number of these dependencies could lead to unreadable or cluttered charts(Gantt, 1910).
Badiru, B. (2009). STEP Project Management: Guide for Science, Technology, and Engineering Projects. New York: Taylor & Francis CRD Press.
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Gedye, R. et al. (1986). The use of microwave ovens for rapid organic synthesis. Tetrahedron Letters 27 (3): 279-282.
Gantt, H. (1910). Work, Wages, and Profit. Engineering Magazine. New York: Hive Publishing Company.
Kidwai, M. (2001). Dry media reactions. Pure Appl. Chem. 73 (1): 147–151.
Knecht, R. (1974). Costing, technological growth, and generalized learning curves.Operations Research Quarterly25 (3): 487-491.
Peter, W. & Morris, G. (1994). The Management of Projects. New York: Thomas Telford.
Project Management Institute. (2003). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Project Management Institute.
Russell, D. (2011). Accountability. In Succeeding in the project management jungle: How to manage the people side of projects. New York: Wiley and Sons.
Uyttewaal, E. (2001). Dynamic Scheduling With Microsoft(s) Project 2000: The Book By and For Professionals. New York: SIEGE.
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